In addition, according to the action plan, the two countries will hold exchanges and dialogue on the mechanism of cooperation and policies between science and technology agencies, encourage companies on both sides to cooperate in the field of innovation and entrepreneurship, and promote cooperation between technology-based think tanks. 1.) Why has technological cooperation deteriorated? The action plan indicates that China and the United States are committed to pursuing the renewal of the S-T agreement in a concerted manner, while strengthening joint scientific research, using the means of cooperation between the provinces in the field of technological innovation, and encouraging dialogue and cooperation between the scientific and technological staff of the two countries. This report examines the 35 years of cooperation between the United States and China in the fields of science and technology (S-T) since the signing of the U.S. Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement in 1979. The two countries only have to gain if their technological cooperation is implemented at a business-to-business or individualized level. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates the demand for approximately one million more science, technology, engineering and mathematics (MINT) specialists than the United States currently produces to preserve its own technological preeminence. And over the years, China has always been the main source of MINT students enrolled in the United States. In addition, surveys by the U.S.

National Science Foundation show that 90% of Chinese scientists are still working 10 years after their PHD in SCIENCES in the United States. These scholars drive innovation in Silicon Valley and accelerate the creation of technology applications that benefit millions of people in the United States. The value of cooperation with the United States at the business-to-business or individualized level is also evident for China. For example, in the United States, medical companies have brought innovative treatments to China`s huge health market through joint ventures, covering a wide range of complex diseases such as influenza, diabetes and high blood pressure. In the face of growing tensions between the United States and China in the field of science and technology, few remember the great successes of technological cooperation between the United States and China over the past 40 years. During the 1970s, technological cooperation expanded, among others, in areas such as energy, health, basic research in physics and chemistry, and in civil industrial technologies, which, by current standards, could easily be considered sensitive areas. University exchanges have also flourished: the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology has been home to thousands of Chinese scientists since the 1980s. The U.S.

National Science Foundation has also sent U.S. scientists to conduct scientific research in China. The most fundamental is that technological cooperation between the United States and China has shifted unilaterally to bilateral. In the past, the United States was typically the supplier of capital and technological know-how, while China was the beneficiary. For the United States, technological assistance to China was in part an exercise in scientific diplomacy. Given that the United States has far outpaced China technologically, the exchange of technological resources for diplomatic objectives has made political sense to the United States. In addition, in the past, technological cooperation between the United States and China has often been introduced in formal environments. Cooperation has generally taken place between government agencies or research institutes close to the government, allowing the United States to control the extent of technological knowledge transferred to China.