In 2017, G20 labour and employment ministers called for a comprehensive report on child labour and forced labour; and a year later, they adopted an action plan to end child labour, forced labour and modern slavery in the world of work. Following the 2017 G20 Declaration, the ILO, OECD, IOM and UNICEF established a research consortium under Alliance 8.7 to analyse data and policy responses on child labour and human trafficking for forced labour. The report (now Alliance 8.7 Report) was published in November 2019 at the Paris Peace Forum and the UNITED Nations Forum on the Economy and Human Rights. The main results are summarized in this article. Human trafficking in forced labour also contributes to global supply chains, although further regional and sectoral research is needed to establish reliable estimates. Regional differences in the share of human trafficking for forced labour, which can be linked to global supply chains, range from 4% to 17%. Trade in forced labour is often in non-export services and in sectors such as domestic work, care work and construction. It is also widespread in agriculture, where systems of servitude have become new forms of coercion, often affecting migrant workers, indigenous peoples and other groups of people discriminated against in the labour market. Various forms of trafficking in workers are widely documented in the EU Member States3.
The Alliance has also promoted coordinated actions to combat child labour and forced labour in supply chains through new cooperation initiatives. The alliance also collaborates with business networks, in particular the Child Labour Platform, the Forced Labour Business Network (which also includes the Consumer Goods Forum and many other professional organisations). Companies, employers` organisations and professional organisations active in these networks are keen to discuss and develop concrete solutions on the ground; in this context, they cooperate with governments, trade unions and other actors. These opportunities for business engagement could be more widely disseminated throughout the European Union and their trading partners. In addition, the international community will celebrate the International Year for the Elimination of Child Labour in 2021 and concrete measures could be presented by Member States and EU institutions. ILO and UN standards on child labour, forced labour and trafficking in human beings are complemented by Directive 2011/36/EU on action against trafficking in human beings and the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. In its numerous reports on the implementation of the Convention, the Group of Experts on Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) has called on parties to ratify measures to prevent trafficking in children and trafficking in human beings for the purpose of labour exploitation. The Alliance 8.7 report identified a number of important risk factors for policy-making by governments, private and public companies. In countries that, for example, insufficiently or inconsistently enforce and enforce international standards prohibiting child labour, human trafficking and forced labour, companies will face a permissive culture of certain exploitative practices. Private compliance initiatives can reduce this risk in part, but are not a substitute for effective regulation and enforcement of legislation. Another structural risk factor is socio-economic pressure that requires a comprehensive state response, such as the extension of social protection ceilings and access to finance for small-scale producers. .