In addition to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners from the 1971 war, the Simla Agreement was a plan for India and Pakistan to maintain friendly and neighbourly relations. As part of the agreement, the two belligerent countries promised to renounce conflicts and confrontations and make efforts to establish peace, friendship and cooperation. New Delhi: Former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi became the greatest and most famous heroine after India`s victory in the war with Pakistan in 1971, which led to the creation of Bangladesh, but was widely criticized for signing the Simla Agreement without resolving the Kashmir issue, a new book says. While in Kashmir, only the “maintenance of the line of control” was the spokesman, a clause was added at India`s request that the two countries would only settle their differences by “peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or other mutually agreed peaceful means,” Guha writes. This theoretically excludes third-party mediation in Kashmir. At the end of this historic summit, India and Pakistan signed the Lahore Declaration, a bilateral agreement and governance treaty that was to be ratified later in the same year by the parliaments of the two nations. As stated in the Simla Agreement 27 years earlier, the Lahore Declaration reaffirmed, inter alia, the need for a bilateral resolution of the Kashmir issue. The actual negotiations began on the 28th India maintained the Dhar approach, in which the return of prisoners of war and the occupied territory of India was part of a package arrangement through a permanent agreement on the formal definition of the border in Kashmir. At the inaugural meeting on 28 June, Dhar stressed that the conclusion of a peace settlement was an “essential” condition for the repatriation of prisoners of war. On June 29, he was looking for a clear framework. Any agreed wording should correspond to the existing situation and be “applicable”. Dhar stressed that “the world is rapidly moving towards bilateralism.” However, Ahmed offered minimal commitments and strove to maintain the old UN-centric conflict resolution framework.

M. Haksar also stressed that India and Pakistan should “solve our own problems” without “involving distant countries in our differences.” On the 30th In June, Dhar had a mild heart attack, with Haksar taking the lead over the rest of the summit. However, India`s boost has remained constant. Foreign Minister S. Jaishankar said on Thursday that the treatment of Pakistan raised many questions in the past and said the 1972 Simla Agreement had led to a “revanchist” Pakistan and persistent problems in Jammu and Kashmir, praising the “courageous steps” taken by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his relations with the neighboring country. According to historian Ramachandra Guha, India wanted a “comprehensive treaty to resolve all outstanding issues,” while Pakistan preferred a “piecemeal approach.” Although India wanted a treaty, it got a deal because of the hard deals made by the Pakistanis. India had three main objectives in Shimla. First, a lasting solution to the Kashmir issue or, if not, an agreement that would prevent Pakistan from involving third parties in discussions on the future of Kashmir. Secondly, it was hoped that the agreement would allow for a new start in relations with Pakistan if Pakistan accepted the new balance of power. Third, it left open the possibility of achieving these two goals without pushing Pakistan against the wall and creating a revanchist anti-Indian regime.